By 1916, there was a better sense of the concept of academic freedom. The American Association of University Professors had formed in 1915 and conducted their first investigation at the University of Utah. They found that for academic freedoms to exist, employment protections were needed. Teachers and researchers needed more than simply the decisions of a President or Board. They also found that tenure relied on state laws or system policies and it meant something more than an annual teaching contract. Utah System of Higher Education, as a public entity, did not have a tenure policy until 1973. But in 1916, the U of U did have a policy and one matter was clear: loyalty. Along with morality and efficiency, it became the tenure standard at the University of Utah.